Cold water with a little lemon juice
or vinegar added. Used for cut up fruits like
apples to keep them from turning brown.
A garlic mayonnaise made in southern
dente (al den-tay):
Pasta or rice cooked to the point
where your teeth can still detect some firmness.
Unthickened cooked meat juices.
Bake pastry such as pie crust before
adding the filling.
Cook food in the indirect , dry heat
of an oven. The food may be covered or uncovered.
Wrap meats (roast and game) in thin
sheets of pork fatback to keep them moist during
Pour liquid over food as it cooks.
Usually the pan drippings. Adds flavor and keeps
food from drying out. Use a baster or a spoon.
Tarraon flavored Hollandaise sauce.
manie' (burr mahn-yay):
Flour and butter paste used to
Cook food in boiling water for a
very short time to prepare for further cooking or
Heat liquids till bubbles form and
rise in a steady pattern, breaking on the
Cook meat or vegetables by first
browning in hot fat, then simmering in a small
amount of liquid in a heavy, covered pot.
Cook food a measured distance from
the direct dry heat of the heat source. A broiler
also is used to brown or toast foods or melt
Cook food until the surface browns,
by sautein or placing under the broiler.
Remove solids from a liquid such a
stock or melted butter, making it clear.
bouillon (koor bwee-yon):
Broth made with water, root
vegetables, white wine or vinegar, hers and
seasoning. Simmered and strained, then used to
poach fish or veal.
or cream together:
Work fat or fat and sugar until
light and creamy in texture and color. Fat (oleo)
for creaming should be soft and at room
Mix a fat like shortening or butter
with flour using a pastry blender or two knives.
The pieces of flour-coated fat become so small -
size of small peas or texture of coarse crumbs.
Cook food in enough melted
shortening or cooking oil to cover. The fat
should be hot enough so that the food cooks
without absorbing excess grease, but not so hot
that the fat smokes or food burns.
Pour water, stock or wine over brown
and caramelized pan drippings in order to loosen
them by stirring and scraping. The flavor-rich
liquid is used for sauce.
Cut into cubes 1/8" to
Distribute small pieces of butter
uniformly over tops of food before cooking or
baking to keep surface moist and encourage
Sprinkle food with flour, sugar,
bread crumbs or seasoning. Easy method is put
food in a bag with dry coating, close tightly and
Two substances that normally won't
mix, usually oil and liquid, forced into a creamy
French for "Spanish" -
generally referring to a sauce or style of
Blend a delicate, easily damaged
substance like beaten egg whites into a sturdier
one like a batter or custard. Use a spoon, rubber
scrapper or whisk. Dip, lift the mixture, and
turn it over lightly to avoid crushing the
Italian dumplings, generally made
from semolina, potatoes or cream puff dough.
Cut food such as cheese or cabbage
into shreds, flakes or tiny particles using a
tool with sharp-edged holes, a knife or a food
A casserole with a topping of bread
crumbs and/or cheese. Best cooked in gratin dish
- a shallow, ovenproof baking dish, usually round
or oval, that can tolerate being placed under the
Cut food into uniform pieces about 1
inch long by 1/8 inch by 1/8 inch. Small julienne
would be 1 inch long by 1/16 inch by 1/16 inch;
large would be 2 inch long by 1/4 inch by 1/4
Anything that lightens and increases
the volume of a batter or dough when heated; air
beaten into egg whites, yeast, baking powder.
Each adds gases that expand when they heat and
make the substance rise.
Heavier than milk, lighter than
whipping cream. In a recipe it usually means
table or coffee cream. If you're watching fats
use half and half, which is lighter.
Small white lines and specks of fat
in the meat of animals - and sometimes fish. A
lot of marbling insures moist, tender (and rich)
Tenderize and flavor a food by
soaking it in a seasoned acidic and/or oily
Cut food into bits about 1/8"
thick (smaller than if you chopped them).
Cook meat briefly and rapidly in a
pan with very little or no fat. To prevent
sticking, salt is sometimes sprinkled into the
dry skillet beforehand, or the warm skillet is
rubbed with a piece of the meat's fat.
The drippings, fat and browned,
caramelized crust that accumulate in a pan which
has been used to fry meat or poultry. See also
Cook food briefly in boiling water
to prepare for further cooking by another method.
Parboiling is similar to blanching but the
cooking lasts slightly longer.
Tissue-thin dough sheets used in
Middle Eastern cooking.
Teeny amount you can hold between
thumb and forefinger - about 1/16 teaspoon.
Cook food in a liquid heated to just
below the boiling point.
Reduce food to a smooth, velvety
pulp by pressing it through a sieve or food mill,
or processing in an electric blender or food
Slowly cook pieces of animal fat
until they liquify and only crisp solids or
A briefly cooked mixture of flour
and fat used to thicken sauces.
French for "pan-fry".
Means "to jump" so when you saute, you
toss the food to keep it from sticking or
Heat a liquid such as milk to a
temperature just below the boiling point. Tiny
bubbles should just start to fizz around the
sides of the pan.
Make shallow or deep cuts in a
decorative pattern with sharp knife. Ham fat is
often scored in diamond shapes. You score the
thickest part of whole fish with 2 or 3 slashes
so that part will cook as fast as the thin areas.
Quickly brown the surface of food
(usually meat) over or under very high heat to
seal in juices and give a rich flavor.
Cut or grate into long, even, thin
The gentlest possible boil. A
continuous stream of small bubbles should rise
slowly to the surface.
Remove fat or scum from the surface
of a liquid. Meats cooked in water usually need
this attention. Easiest done with a slotted
spoon, ladle, or skimmer.
Cook in steam, on a rack above
(never touching) boiling liquid, in a tightly
Soak a food such as tea, mint leaves
or saffron in liquid that is just under the
boiling point, to soften the food or flavor the
Cook food slowly in a simmering,
well-seasoned liquid in a covered pan.
Saute small, uniform-sized pieces of
food quickly over high heat in a Chinese wok or
skillet, tossing the food constantly.
A flavored broth made by simmering
the bones, skin and scraps of meat, poultry or
fish with vegetables in water. It is strained and
used instead of water in soup, sauces, etc.
Cook sliced or chopped ingredients
in a little fat and no liquid over very low heat,
covered, until they ooze their juices and begin
to brown. Often a preliminary step for stewing,
braising, soup making.
A Middle Eastern salad made with
bulgur, parsley and mint.
A hybrid of wheat and rye.
Incorporate air into a mixture by
Whip using a wire whip or whisk.
The outermost surface of the peel of
a citrus fruit. Also, to remove that outermost
skin in tiny strips.